The boat was inside Indonesia's search and rescue region.
The Australian Maritime Safety Authority Rescue Coordination Centre coordinated the search-and-rescue operation.
The merchant vessel Parsifal located the boat on Tuesday morning, 44 nautical miles south of Java and took its passengers onboard.
Shortly after, HMAS Maitland arrived at the scene to provide support.
Parsifal transferred the people to Christmas Island, where they will undergo initial security, health and identity checks and their reasons for travel will be established.
The government has warned that people arriving by boat without a visa after Monday run the risk of being transferred to a regional processing country, subject to parliament passing legislation.
An Australian Customs vessel will transfer a second group of 62 people to Christmas Island, following a separate rescue operation on Monday night.
A suspected asylum seeker boat was located by a RAAF maritime surveillance aircraft inside the Indonesian search and rescue region, about 48 nautical miles south of East Java.
Merchant vessel Maersk Diadema located the vessel on Monday night and took its passengers onboard.
They were transferred to ACV Triton about midday AEST on Tuesday.